Jargon Buster – English
At the request of some of our parents, we have put together a guide to some of the terms your child might use in their English lessons. There is a brief explanation of the term and some examples.
Feel free to speak to Mrs Ruddick in Class 6 if you would like some further clarification or if you hear a term that your child uses which you would like explained on here please let Mrs Ruddick know.
Phonics and spellings
Phonics – the way we teach children about letters and the sounds they make in different words.
Phoneme – a unit of sound. The number of phonemes or sounds in a word is not always the same as the number of letters. For example, the word ‘sheep’ has 5 letters but only 3 phonemes
sh - ee - p.
Grapheme – a letter or group of letters.
Digraph – this is when two letters work together to make one sound. For example, the word ‘church’ has 3 digraphs ch – ur - ch. There are loads of digraphs which the children learn at school. Here are just a few examples:
ee in meet, ea in beans, oo in spoon, oi in coin, or in fork.
Trigraph - this is when three letters work together to make one sound. For example, the word ‘light’ has a trigraph in it: l - igh - t. There are quite a few trigraphs that the children learn at school. Here are a few examples:
ear in fear, air in chair, ure in sure.
Split digraph – This is a digraph that is split round another letter. For example, oe in toe can be split around letter ‘p’ to make hope. ie in pie can be split around the letter ‘t’ to make bite. Others include a- e in cake, e-e in Steve and u-e in tune.
Vowel - The vowels are a, e, i, o, u. They can also be represented by two or more letters e.g. vowel digraphs include ai in rain, ea in beach and ay in day. Vowel sounds can sometimes be represented by the letter y e.g. gym, funny, sky.
Consonants - These are all other letters of the alphabet.
Short vowel sounds: a, e, i, o and u when they make their sound.
For example: a in ‘cat’
u in ‘up’
e in ‘pet’
i in ‘pick’
o in ‘dog’
Knowing the short vowel sounds is very handy for learning some spellings rules.
Suffix – This is something that can be added on to a word to change tense or word type. For example, ful in wonderful, ly in carefully, ed in walked, ment in improvement, ing in going, est in coolest.
Noun – we teach this as something you can have e.g. I can have a lolly/ headache/ prize/ present/ thought.
Noun Phrase - A group of words to describe a noun. For example, his lolly, the pink lolly, the lolly with 100s and 1000s on it, my melting lolly.
Singular – one of something. For example, a fox, the field, my brother, one biscuit.
Plural – more than one. You usually add s or es to a singular noun. For example, two foxes, my brothers, some biscuits, the fields. Sometimes there are nouns which do not follow this pattern e.g. lots of children, twenty sheep.
Verb - we teach this as a word which is being, doing or having. For example,
I am happy.
He goes to the park.
She ate her breakfast and drank her milk.
After lunch, Grandpa slept in his chair.
Every day, I have cereal for breakfast.
Children need to know when a word that looks like a verb is actually performing a different function. For example, in the following sentence 'running' is not a verb but an adjective as it describes the shoes.
She had PE so she wore her running shoes.